People of the highlands engage in colourful local rituals that are called "sing sings". [73] Mangrove swamps stretch along the coast, and in the inland it is inhabited by nipa palm (Nypa fruticans), and deeper in the inland the sago palm tree inhabits areas in the valleys of larger rivers. [27], According to the WWF, New Guinea can be divided into twelve terrestrial ecoregions:[28], The WWF and Nature Conservancy divide New Guinea into five freshwater ecoregions:[29], The WWF and Nature Conservancy identify several marine ecoregions in the seas bordering New Guinea:[30], The first inhabitants, from whom the Papuan people are probably descended, adapted to the range of ecologies and, in time, developed one of the earliest known agricultures. The Law established a Papuan People's Assembly (MRP) with representatives of the different indigenous cultures of Papua. Oil palm production has grown steadily over recent years (largely from estates and with extensive outgrower output), with palm oil now the main agricultural export. (There is no recent data for this indicator. Mineral deposits, including gold, oil, and copper, account for 72% of export earnings. The Indonesian province of West Papua is home to an estimated 44 uncontacted tribal groups.[23]. Only a few limited finished products are exported. [39] The monarch is represented by the Governor-General of Papua New Guinea, currently Bob Dadae. [19] It is a full member of the Pacific Community, the Pacific Islands Forum,[20] and the Commonwealth of Nations.[21]. Homosexual acts are prohibited by law in Papua New Guinea. [42][43] In September 2017, Papua New Guinea rejected the West Papuan Independence Petition in the UN General Assembly.[44]. The largest island offshore, Dolak, lies near the Digul estuary, separated by a strait so narrow it has been named a "creek". Further gas and mineral projects are proposed (including the large Wafi-Golpu copper-gold mine), with extensive exploration ongoing across the country. [68] The 141° E meridian formed the entire eastern boundary of Dutch New Guinea according to its 1828 annexation proclamation. The eastern half of the island is the major land mass o… In the 18th century, traders brought the sweet potato to New Guinea, where it was adopted and became a staple food. Papua New Guinea is rich in various species of reptiles, indigenous freshwater fish and birds, but it is almost devoid of large mammals. They are completely different: The Republic of Guinea is a country in Africa. Trees such as oaks, red cedars, pines, beeches are becoming predominantly present in the uplands above 3,300 feet. The 2007 general election was the first to be conducted using LPV. A spine of east–west mountains, the New Guinea Highlands, dominates the geography of New Guinea, stretching over 1,600 km (1,000 mi) across the island, with many mountains over 4,000 m (13,100 ft). Ploeg reports that the word papua is often said to be derived from the Malay word papua or pua-pua, meaning "frizzly-haired", referring to the highly curly hair of the inhabitants of these areas. [34], Numerous Chinese have worked and lived in Papua New Guinea, establishing Chinese-majority communities. Neighbouring countries are: Indonesia. [114] Papua New Guinea has six universities apart from other major tertiary institutions. People typically live in villages that rely on subsistence farming. It is also a member of APEC and an ACP country, associated with the European Union. Many species of birds and mammals found on New Guinea have close genetic links with corresponding species found in Australia. Pigs, several additional species of rats, and the ancestor of the New Guinea singing dog were introduced with human colonization. [47] According to UNICEF, nearly half of reported rape victims are under 15 years old, and 13% are under 7 years old. Wikramanayake, Eric; Eric Dinerstein; Colby J. Loucks; et al. In the period from 1998 to 2008, conservationists identified 1,060 new species in New Guinea, including 218 plants, 43 reptiles, 12 mammals, 580 invertebrates, 134 amphibians, 2 birds and 71 fish. New Guinea, island of the eastern Malay Archipelago, in the western Pacific Ocean, north of Australia. The entire coral area covers 18 million hectares off a peninsula in northwest New Guinea. The PNG Bahá’í community grew so quickly that in 1969 a National Spiritual Assembly (administrative council) was elected. [49], The 1971 Sorcery Act imposed a penalty of up to 2 years in prison for the practice of "black" magic, until the act was repealed in 2013. There is virtually no freehold title; the few existing freeholds are automatically converted to state lease when they are transferred between vendor and purchaser. Airplanes made it possible to open up the country during its early colonial period. One major project conducted through the PNG Department for Community Development suggested that other pathways to sustainable development should be considered. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. It occupies the eastern half of New Guinea (the world’s 2 nd largest island) and includes numerous offshore islands. The Negarakertagama mentioned the region of Wanin in eastern Nusantara as part of Majapahit's tributary. Arc-continent collision in Papua Guinea: Constraints from fission track thermochronology Kevin C. Hill and Asaf Raza • Australian Geodynamics Cooperative Research Centre, Department of Earth Sciences, La Trobe University, Melbourne Victoria, Australia Abstract. Papua new guinea is part of the south pacific. Religious syncretism is high, with many citizens combining their Christian faith with some traditional indigenous religious practices. [69] The maritime boundary with Australia was confirmed by a treaty in 1978. With an average of only 7,000 speakers per language, Papua New Guinea has a greater density of languages than any other nation on earth except Vanuatu. The majority belong to the Sunni group, while a small number are Ahmadi. Local developers are handicapped by years of deficient investment in education, health, and access to finance. Known high-risk … Provinces[58] are the primary administrative divisions of the country. The more extensive southern lowlands are drained by a larger number of rivers, principally the Digul in the west and the Fly in the east. The eastern half forms the mainland of the country of Papua New Guinea. Elections in PNG attract numerous candidates. Most societies practice agriculture, supplemented by hunting and gathering. Irian is the name used in the Biak language and other languages such as Serui, Merauke and Waropen. Austronesian-speaking peoples colonized many of the offshore islands to the north and east of New Guinea, such as New Ireland and New Britain, with settlements also on the coastal fringes of the main island in places. The first Bahá’í in PNG was Violete Hoenke who arrived at Admiralty Island, from Australia, in 1954. Seashells are no longer the currency of Papua New Guinea, as they were in some regions—sea shells were abolished as currency in 1933. The word papua is derived from an old local term of uncertain origin. Native resentment against Chinese ownership of numerous small businesses and their commercial monopoly in the islands led to the rioting. ExxonMobil is operator of the joint venture, also comprising PNG company Oil Search, Santos, Kumul Petroleum Holdings (Papua New Guinea's national oil and gas company), JX Nippon Oil and Gas Exploration, the PNG government's Mineral Resources Development Company and Petromin PNG Holdings. New Guinea contains many of the world's ecosystem types: glacial, alpine tundra, savanna, montane and lowland rainforest, mangroves, wetlands, lake and river ecosystems, seagrasses, and some of the richest coral reefs on the planet. In 2012 the decision was made to erect the first Bahá’í House of Worship in PNG. Carjacking, assault (including sexual assaults), bag snatching and robberies are common. Numerous smaller islands are located to the west and east. The Land Group Incorporation Act requires more specific identification of the customary landowners than hitherto and their more specific authorisation before any land arrangements are determined; (a major issue in recent years has been a land grab, using, or rather misusing, the Lease-Leaseback provision under the Land Act, notably using 'Special Agricultural and Business Leases' (SABLs) to acquire vast tracts of customary land, purportedly for agricultural projects, but in an almost all cases as a back-door mechanism for securing tropical forest resources for logging—circumventing the more exacting requirements of the Forest Act, for securing Timber Permits (which must comply with sustainability requirements and be competitively secured, and with the customary landowners approval). Davis Steven was appointed deputy prime minister. Botanically, New Guinea is considered part of Malesia, a floristic region that extends from the Malay Peninsula across Indonesia to New Guinea and the East Melanesian Islands. [55] In the post, Kramer accused the Royal PNG Constabulary of widespread corruption, claiming that "Senior officers based in Police Headquarters in Port Moresby were stealing from their own retired officers’ pension funds. In the early 1970s, they introduced the term Greater Australia for the Pleistocene continent. Following Tidore's defeat, much of the territory it claimed in western part of New Guinea came under Dutch rule as part of Dutch East Indies.[39]. Cities []. This percentage is about the same amount as that found in the United States or Australia. "[56] Commissioner for Police David Manning, in a separate statement, said that his force included “criminals in uniform”.[57]. State of Origin is a highlight of the year for most Papua New Guineans, although the support is so passionate that many people have died over the years in violent clashes supporting their team. [70] In the Torres Strait it runs close to the mainland of New Guinea, keeping the adjacent North Western Torres Strait Islands (Dauan, Boigu and Saibai) under Australian sovereignty. All ordinary statutes enacted by Parliament must be consistent with the Constitution. In 2011, Commissioner for Police Anthony Wagambie took the unusual step of asking the public to report police asking for payments for performing their duties. Geologically, the island of New Guinea is a northern extension of the Indo-Australian tectonic plate, forming part of a single land mass which is Australia-New Guinea (also called Sahul or Meganesia). The courts are directed by the Constitution and, latterly, the Underlying Law Act, to take note of the "custom" of traditional communities. [34] A unique feature of New Guinea permaculture is the silviculture of Casuarina oligodon, a tall, sturdy native ironwood tree, suited to use for timber and fuel, with root nodules that fix nitrogen. [31] Sugarcane was cultivated for the first time in New Guinea around 6000 BC.[32]. Settlement or squatter areas of towns and cities are particularly dangerous. Parliament debates bills, and if approved the bill is forwarded to the Governor-General for Royal assent, following which it becomes law. We also uncovered many cases of senior officers facilitating the theft of Police land. The island of New Guinea lies to the east of the Malay Archipelago, with which it is sometimes included as part of a greater Indo-Australian Archipelago. Coffee remains the major export crop (produced largely in the Highlands provinces); followed by cocoa and coconut oil/copra from the coastal areas, each largely produced by smallholders; tea, produced on estates; and rubber. [13] There are 851 known languages in the country, of which 11 now have no known speakers. In 1883, following a short-lived French annexation of New Ireland, the British colony of Queensland annexed south-eastern New Guinea. [53] In September 2020, Minister for Police Bryan Jared Kramer launched a broadside on Facebook against his own police department,[54] which was subsequently reported in the international media. [2] Its etymology is unclear;[2] one theory states that it derived from Tidore, the language used by the Sultanate of Tidore, which controlled parts of the island's coastal region. About half of the 2.4 million inhabitants of Indonesian Papua are Javanese migrants. In 1545, he noted the resemblance of the people to those he had earlier seen along the Guinea coast of Africa. During the 1950s, the Dutch government began to prepare Netherlands New Guinea for full independence and allowed elections in 1959; the elected New Guinea Council took office on 5 April 1961. Find expert advice on the best regions for incredible wildlife and beautiful landscapes. [citation needed] The highest peak is Mount Wilhelm at 4,509 metres (14,793 ft). After the war, in which Germany and the Central Powers were defeated, the League of Nations authorised Australia to administer this area as a League of Nations mandate territory that became the Territory of New Guinea. New Guinea’s western half comprises the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua and its eastern half comprises the major part of Papua New Guinea, an independent country since 1975. The geography and economy of Papua New Guinea are the main factors behind the low percentage. Tectonics 13:1007–34. There was strong pressure among some MPs to defer the national elections for a further six months to one year, although their powers to do that were highly questionable. [citation needed]. The island's frogs are one of the most poorly known vertebrate groups, totalling 282 species, but this number is expected to double or even triple when all species have been documented. A high percentage of New Guinea's species are endemic, and thousands are still unknown to science: probably well over 200,000 species of insect, between 11,000 and 20,000 plant species, and over 650 resident bird species. Papua New Guinea is a Commonwealth realm with Elizabeth II as Queen of Papua New Guinea. Anthropologically, New Guinea is considered part of Melanesia.[15]. Papua New Guinea has an urbanisation rate of 2.51%, measured as the projected change in urban population from 2015 to 2020. [12] Papua New Guinea is part of the Australasian realm, which also includes Australia, New Zealand, eastern Indonesia, and several Pacific island groups, including the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. [78] The project is an integrated development that includes gas production and processing facilities in the Hela, Southern Highlands and Western Provinces of Papua New Guinea, including liquefaction and storage facilities (located northwest of Port Moresby) with capacity of 6.9 million tonnes per year. Another major habitat feature is the vast southern and northern lowlands. Papua New Guinea (PNG) is an island nation in Oceania. The territories under Australian administration became collectively known as The Territories of Papua and New Guinea (until February 1942). [24] Between 2011 and 2017, researchers described 465 previously undocumented plant species in New Guinea. Maritime boundaries with the Solomon Islands were confirmed by a 1989 treaty. World Development Indicators. Advocacy in the courts follows the adversarial pattern of other common-law countries. [15], The sovereign state is classified as a developing economy by the International Monetary Fund. Papua New Guinea has more languages than any other country,[92] with over 820 indigenous languages, representing 12% of the world's total, but most have fewer than 1,000 speakers. Following the return to civil administration after World War II, the Australian section was known as the Territory of Papua-New Guinea from 1945 to 1949 and then as Territory of Papua and New Guinea. It is usually considered, geographically, part of the continent of Asia. [89] 20,000 people from Australia currently live in Papua New Guinea. [14] The two landmasses became separated when the area now known as the Torres Strait flooded after the end of the last glacial period. It is, therefore, hoped to be a symbol for the entire country. The flora of New Guinea is a mixture of many tropical rainforest species with origins in Asia, together with typically Australasian flora. The first European contact with New Guinea was by Portuguese and Spanish sailors in the 16th century. Its mainland on … Many Papua New Guineans have become celebrities by representing their country or playing in an overseas professional league. The northern lowlands are drained principally by the Mamberamo River and its tributaries on the western side, and by the Sepik on the eastern side. One notable feature in common for the two landmasses is the existence of several species of marsupial mammals, including some kangaroos and possums, which are not found elsewhere. These are the University of Goroka in the Eastern Highlands province, Divine Word University (run by the Catholic Church's Divine Word Missionaries) in Madang Province, Vudal University in East New Britain Province and Pacific Adventist University (run by the Seventh-day Adventist Church) in the National Capital District. With the Papua Act 1905, the UK transferred this territory to the newly formed Commonwealth of Australia, which took on its administration. Politically, the western half of the island comprises two provinces of Indonesia: Papua and West Papua. [38] Sultan Nuku, one of the most famous Tidore sultans who rebelled against Dutch colonization, called himself "Sultan of Tidore and Papua",[39] during his revolt in 1780s. In 2020, an international study conducted by a team of 99 experts cataloged 13,634 species representing 1,742 genera and 264 families of vascular plants for New Guinea and its associated islands (Aru Is., Bismarck Arch., D'Entrecasteaux Is., Louisiade Arch. The first WHO Country Liaison Officer who was appointed in August 1974 was assigned as the first WHO Representative. The name is one of several toponyms sharing similar etymologies, ultimately meaning "land of the blacks" or similar meanings, in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants. Nine out of ten were also co-authored by scientists from other countries, mainly Australia, the United States of America, United Kingdom, Spain and Switzerland. [102] Most Christians in Papua New Guinea are Protestants, constituting roughly 70% of the total population. The people, known as the Dani, were the last society of its size to make first contact with the rest of the world. Papua new guinea should not be referred to as being part of australia. [99] The 2010 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Papua New Guinea was 250. This followed nearly 60 years of Australian administration, which started during World War I. As of 2020, the Western portion of New Guinea, Papua and West Papua, accounts for 54% of the island's primary forest and about 51% of the island's total tree cover, according to satellite data. [74], The climate on the island is essentially tropical, but it varies by region. In 2000, Irian Jaya was formally renamed "The Province of Papua" and a Law on Special Autonomy was passed in 2001. Approximately 216,000 Japanese, Australian and U.S. soldiers, sailors and airmen died during the New Guinea Campaign.[44]. 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