The information processing approach is a different way of understanding thinking and related processes. It is organised and goal directed. Eleanor Rosch argues that in considering how people think about concepts, prototypes are often involved in real life. Judgment and decision making are interrelated processes. Major development in language occurs during the first two or three years of age. According to Piaget, children’s thinking is qualitatively different from that of adults, passing through distinct stages of development. Originality is the ability to produce ideas that are rare, Research has shown that fluency and flexibility are the necessary conditions for originality. Cognition includes thinking, problem solving, concept formation, and the processing of information to obtain judgments and decisions. The subordinate is far too specific than is needed for conversation, while the superordinate is far too vague to convey the intended message. We can say that thinking is a silent speech because thinking is based on concepts and words. Language and thought are intricately related. Sometimes ideas cluster like branches of a tree. The goal is to determine what conclusion can be drawn from certain given information. It is sometimes a synonym for "tending to believe," especially with less t… Engage yourself more frequently in activities which require use of imagination and original thinking rather than routine work according to your interest and hobbies. On many occasions we communicate through the use of our body parts, called gestures or postures. It involves manipulation and analysis of information received from the environment. No notes for slide. Reasoning refers to realistic thinking process that draws a conclusion from a set of facts. Here is a sample page from my notes: Click to Enlarge. The definition of thinking: The mind is the idea while thinking processes of the brain involved in processing information such as when we form concepts, engage in problem solving, to reason and make decisions. Concepts can be very general form such as ‘fruit’ called superordinate concept. In common language, the word to think covers numerous and diverse psychological activities. This type of communication is called non-verbal communication. it is possible to have the same level or quality of thoughts in all languages depending upon the availability of linguistic categories and structures. Language is just one of the vehicles of thinking. Inductive  reasoning is drawing a general conclusion based on particular observation. Creative thinking is distinguished from other types of thinking by the fact that it involves the production of novel and original ideas or solutions to problems, creative thinking is understood just as a new way of thinking or thinking differently. Generate as many ideas, responses, solutions or suggestions on a given task or situation to increase your flow of thoughts. They are NOT to be used instead of taking your own class notes. Thinking is mostly organised and goal directed. The need for search of new ideas and solutions arises from sensing problems and gaps in information. Almost all our day-today activities are directed towards a goal. An Alphonso mango would be a subordinate concept. Thinking is involved in the system of inputs-central processing-outputs where these three aspects function as a whole. Reasoning differs from trial and error in three important ways. Perceptual or Concrete Thinking: Prior success with a particular strategy would sometimes help in solving a new problem. Reviewing our activity is necessary to building good thinking habits, so that we know what to do or not to do when next we meet a similar problem. psychologists accept that both nature and nurture are important in language acquisition. The two-word stage exemplifies telegraphic speech. There is also a great deal of regularity with which children all over the world seem to be learning the language or languages to which they are exposed. Most of Psychologists believe that language development in children is a product of heredity and environment. Divergent thinking abilities facilitate generation of a variety of ideas which may not seem to be related. One does not have to be a scientist or an artist to be a creative thinker. Convergent thinking refers to thinking that is required to solve problems which have only one correct. - Mental images usually refer to visual “pictures.” People can also form mental representations that involve senses other than vision as mental images are manipulated in the same way that visual images of actual objects are. People usually think by means of mental images or words. Our judgment of this person is based on the specific characteristics of an expert salesperson. The fact that everyone has the potential to be creative and that one can differ in one’s expression of creative thinking requires that we all tap our creative potential and remove the barriers as discussed above. Concepts are ideas that represent a class or category of objects, events, or activities. All day-to-day activities, ranging from cooking to solving a math problem have a goal. Such manipulation and analysis occur by means of abstracting, reasoning, imagining, problem solving, judging and decision-making. Like mental set, functional fixedness in problem solving occurs when people fail to solve a problem because they are fixed on a thing’s usual function. Choose from 100 different sets of cornell notes psychology thinking flashcards on Quizlet. If you have ever used a hardbound book to hammer a nail, then you have overcome functional fixedness. His tendency to characterize patterns and objects (and therefore the way he groups them) seems to be overly simplistic and vague. Psychology is the scientific study of how people think, feel and behave. The solution to the problem lies in going beyond the boundaries. In contrast, Ivan Pavlov who was a ‘behaviourist,’ basically depositing that all behaviours are learnt, and we learn what are called contingencies, and repeated exposure to certain associations can help alter … A prototype is the best representative member of the category. The starting point in creative process is the need to think or bring out something new which initiates the effort. The process evokes curiosity and excitement to think more and more in different directions. They help us in identifying and  visualising the salient attributes of an object or event, which would otherwise go unnoticed. When we see a new object, we try to look for its characteristics, match them with characteristics of an existing category, and if matching is perfect we give it the name of that category. Thinking about Theories and Research (pp. 1.7 What specialty areas exist in psychology? The-process of solving problems by combining ideas or behaviour in new ways is creativity. In decision making the problem before us is to choose among alternatives by evaluating the cost and benefit associated with each alternative, In decision making we already know the various solutions or choices and one has to be selected, people differ in their priorities and therefore their decisions will differ. Process of creative thinking involves preparation, incubation, illumination and verification stages. Convergent thinking is important to identify the most useful or appropriate idea. This approach looks at the process of thinking in terms of active processing of information by the human brain. Habitual learning, perceptual, motivational and emotional blocks and cultural barriers are main obstacles to develop creative thinking. Brainstorming is based on the principle that producing ideas should be kept separate from the evaluation of their worth. There are stages before and after the new ideas come. Knowledge of vocabulary and syntax of a language does not ensure proper use of language to achieve the purpose of communication in a variety of social situations. Reasoning begins with a question for which we do not have a ready answer. The perceptual blocks prevent us from being open to novel and original ideas. These two forms of reasoning lead us to make judgement. September 2012– I referred NCERT again – Highlighted relevant texts in the PDF. This view is known as linguistic relativity hypothesis. Thinking is an internal cognitive process which can be inferred from overt behaviour. This is evident in pianists and artists where mental images nourish the mind. 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