One example is when a natural monopoly exists. 33. A monopoly (from Greek μόνος, mónos, 'single, alone' and πωλεῖν, pōleîn, 'to sell') exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity. As with all monopolies, a monopolist who has gained his position through natural monopoly effects may engage in behavior that abuses his market position. Natural Monopoly and Price Discriminating Monopoly. This tends to lead to calls from consumers for government regulation, while at the same time opening up opportunities for competitors to offer better service. Natural Monopolies. Since natural monopolies have a declining average cost curve, regulating natural monopolies by setting price equal to marginal cost would a. cause the monopolist to operate at a loss. b. result in a less than optimal total surplus. When regulators use a marginal-cost pricing strategy to regulate a natural monopoly, the regulated monopoly D) All of the above are correct. Overall, monopolies appear to be economically inefficient. The regulators might require the firm to produce where marginal cost crosses the market demand curve at point C. Regulators usually encourage natural monopolists to engage in A) marginal cost pricing. The concept of cross elasticity of demand can be used to measure the presence of close substitutes for the product of a monopoly firm. As we have seen, natural monopolists enjoy an economic cost advantage due to economies of scale. B) the capture theory. C) share-the-gains, share-the-pains theory. 27. Question 11 options: A) the natural theory. 28. B)government actions promoting the economic growth of key industries or firms. Price capping by regulators RPI-X Answer:C. 51)Industrial policy comprises: A)industrial regulation and social regulation only. a pure monopoly in that regard, even though you can switch to oil or natural gas for heating. The theory of regulatory behavior that suggests that regulators must consider the demands of legislators, consumers, and members of the regulated agency is called. Of course, you can use oil, natural gas, or kerosene for lighting too—but these are hardly convenient options. How the government regulate monopolies. ... if regulators disallow price increases requested by a natural monopoly that is currently earning an economic loss, quality or service will ... regulators usually encourage natural monopolists to engage in. Therefore, we cannot encourage competition, and it is essential to regulate the firm to prevent the abuse of monopoly power. people do not usually behave in a non cooperative fashion even when it is in their immediate interest to do so because. C) marginal cost pricing, with subsidies from the … c. maximize producer surplus. Earlier generations of monopolists – think the East India Company, Standard Oil, AT&T, Microsoft, even Bell Canada at one point – were usually loathed or, at best, tolerated by consumers. This contrasts with a monopsony which relates to a single entity's control of a market to purchase a good or service, and with oligopoly and duopoly which consists of a few sellers dominating a market. If the government regulates the price that a natural monopolist can charge to be equal to the firm’s average total cost, the firm will A) earn zero profits. If antitrust regulators split this company exactly in half, then each half would produce at point B, with average costs of 9.75 and output of 2. 26. C)anti-combines, industrial regulation, and social regulation. This monopoly will produce at point A, with a quantity of 4 and a price of 9.3. Nevertheless, we can identify some exceptions to this general rule. 1. 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