"We tried to distract them. WHOI's team returned to the wreck site in the summer of 2015 with their metallic heat maps to begin the process of finding out if the Antikythera has more secrets go give up. This website uses cookies to improve user experience. Image Credit:: IRNA / ABDOLLAH HEIDARI Located in the area near the city of Samen, archaeologists excavated the remains of around 50 large underground rooms that served as houses some 2,000 years ago. With better maps, the team could use side-scan sonar and multibeam echosounding, which can build up a picture of the seafloor, without risk of damage to the environment or to their equipment. By focusing excavation efforts on areas that show a higher density of metal, the excavations could potentially turn up more fragments of the Antikythera mechanism (only half of the system has been recovered to date). TechRepublic talked to the teams behind some of the most high-profile shipwrecks to be discovered in recent years to find out how they've located the ships and uncovered their secrets--including a 2,000 year old device that may have been the world's first computer. For over four hundred years, the wreck and its rumoured treasure had slept 75 meters beneath the Baltic Sea. Their stories obviously are intrinsically intertwined, so we hope in the fullness of time to understand what happened to the expedition and find as many clues as possible, and both ships would certainly assist that.". Image source . Last year, WHOI experimented with a fusion of the two: an Iron Man-like exosuit. "Out of the gloom on the seafloor loomed this stately shipwreck site, standing bolt upright. "The sidescan sonar is the best technology available, but it's not so detailed that you can see cannon and things," said Lundgren. If Cousteau and his team made sprints to the Antikythera, the WHOI exploration is set to be more of a marathon. Harris said, "It's an extremely important tool for us now. When they took to the seas, some of these vessels were the state of the art, laden with some of the most advanced technology of their era. The team uses stereophotogrammetry for that. We stopped in one place and deployed an ROV. To preserve them, protect them, and interpret them for the public, obviously we have know where both of them are. So far, a not-to-scale section of the hull and one of the guns have been printed out. Since archeologists have previously only been able to operate at a depth of 60 meters, the team is confident that their month-long expedition will yield many other artefacts. The WHOI scientists have already got a handle on other aspects of the travellers' lives, from their hygiene habits to their diets, thanks to the ceramic storage vessels found on the wreck site. The first dive also found the ship's bell, broken free from the belfry but otherwise undamaged, stamped with 1845--the date the two ships had set sail for the Arctic. The Mary Rose, a 16th century English warship and the pearl of King Henry VIII's fleet, was sunk ten years before the Mars and salvaged thirty years before it. "With all of these types of ceramic artefacts, they're empty now, but we can take swabs and using police forensic techniques we can pull ancient trace DNA from the ceramic matrix of the original contents, down to the species level," Foley said. "It's fun for us," said Foley, "because we feel like we've opened up a whole new vista on the past, and we can generate hard data on these early economies. The Mars met its end in a bloody sea battle between Sweden, which had built the formidable warship, and the combined armies of Denmark and the German province of Lübeck. By continuing to use our website you consent to all cookies in accordance with our cookie policy. The results of the landmark excavation are still being revealed. You need to take diving technology and rebreathers and a lot of lamps, of course," said Rönnby. A second wreck--mentioned in passing by Cousteau's team but never really explored--had been keeping the first, better-explored ship company all these years, practically untouched. The imagery could equally be used to build a 3D visualisation that visitors could manipulate and explore themselves, putting themselves at the heart of history. Sometimes they would dig down to the water table and build an underground tunnel to begin the aqueduct. A Secret Tunnel Found in Mexico May Finally Solve the Mysteries of Teotihuacán The chance discovery beneath a nearly 2,000-year-old pyramid leads to the heart of a lost civilization Finding more of the statues "would be quite a big contribution to art history and culture but we also expect that in amongst the fragments of the statues will be other amazing things. Found … In 1953 and 1976, marine explorer Jacques Cousteau led the next expeditions to the wreck, bringing an assortment of objects, including more statues, coins, and gemstones. Was the second wreck, dubbed Antikythera B, another ship that had sunk around the same time as the first Antikythera wreck? "The ancient grain carriers weren't just cargo ships, they were more like RMS Titanic. All workers on the boat will give cheek swabs to make sure their genetic material can be identified if it ends up on the bones accidentally. "One of the goals will be to virtually excavate and re-excavate the site in the computer afterwards, by using our series of images over the trench we're digging to be able to take it down and refill it in the computer afterwards, so we make sure we're absolutely documenting every action we take.". A ‘lost’ 2.000-year-old underground city has been unearthed by experts in Iran, what they found inside was completely unexpected and terrifying. It's thought the two vessels, HMS Erebus and HMS Terror, were abandoned when they became icebound, leaving the crew to begin a trek on foot across Canada in the hope of finding supplies, or human settlements along the way. You can print parts of the structures or you can print artefacts with 3D printers.". ", Inside the Raspberry Pi: The story of the $35 computer that changed the world, Can Russian hackers be stopped? Having set sail to discover, trade, or wage war, the boats never reached safe harbour and exist now as time capsules beneath the waves. It's absolutely typical of royal navy dockyard modifications for Arctic service," said Harris. The multibeam sonar and photogrammetry are used in concert. When the Mars sank in 1564, it was perhaps the biggest ship in the world--a fearsome vessel with over one hundred guns and 700 men onboard. That's where we're able us to use different technological approaches to document the site that work a lot a better.". The exosuit is a small wearable submarine that keeps the diver's air at the same atmospheric pressure as it is in the water. The first Antikythera wreck has already yielded amphora, the "55 gallon drum of antiquity", table jugs known as lagynos, and unguentaria--the small bottles that would hold medicines, cosmetics or perfumes. Thanks to carbon dating, we know that this booty-laden ship sank around 60 B.C. "Putting humans in the water is always the option of last resort because we have to eat, we have to poop, we get tired and we're really not that efficient underwater. Foley said. Nicknamed the “Big Fat Greek Expedition,” archeologists this week have embarked on a new mission to explore an ancient wreckage where one of the most complicated scientific antiques in existence was discovered over 100 years ago in the Aegean Sea. In three or four days, they would be on top of the wreck before Ocean Discovery had had time to register the discovery as its own. And it's all right there in these ostensibly empty jars.". Any artefacts, such as mosaic pieces, would lend credence to the theory, but more evidence could come from the bones of passengers that died when the ship sank. Despite all its technical bells and whistles, the Arctic Explorer had to watch from the sidelines. The divers move through the water, iPad in hand, looking for the points of interest from the heat maps, and checking their position against those locations as they go. When the scuba gear arrived, human divers were able to see the site for the first time. A three-man team, comprised of the two Lundgren brothers and Skogh, went in to investigate. Due to the depth of the wreck and the diving technology of the period, divers could only spend a handful of minutes investigating the ship at a time or risk the bends that proved fatal to the first expedition. The debris trail stretching the 300 meters between the two ships looked to be continuous, suggesting that the two wreck sites were part of one larger ship that had split into two parts. Many attempts had been made to find her since her loss on the first day of the Battle of Öland. It's what we call the future of maritime archaeology to be able to do that. ", The ships that were sent to find Erebus and Terror five years later had already had their bilge pumps upgraded to the newer Daunton model. Here's why it might take 20 years, Smart farming: How IoT, robotics, and AI are tackling one of the biggest problems of the century, 2,000 year old 'computer' discovered: How tech and shipwrecks are rewriting human history. They were more like luxury cruise liners," Foley said. Using an algorithm called SLAM (simultaneous localisation and mapping), the imagery from the stereo cameras can be knitted together to make an extremely precise map of the seafloor. Over the course of Ocean Discovery's search, the team had found tens of wrecked wooden ships maintained in a good state by the Baltic waters, located using the trawl snag data from the fishermen, but none had been the Mars. It's ship a connected to the building of Sweden. Foley's team will be testing the hypothesis over the next few visits to the site, using technology to help them determine the true origins of the second wreck. It's been posited that sand or straw could be used as the packing material, but Foley suggests grain could be a more likely candidate: not only would the statues be protected but the grain could be sold on at the Antikythera's destination, making it a far more economical option. It's not uncommon to find ancient ready meals in some of the jars--mixes of legumes or meats, herbs and spices--but the information from the jars can be far more valuable, giving an indication of what commodities were being traded between what locations, enabling archaeologists to get a better insight into the economy of a region than historical sources alone can provide. Ancient underground lakes discovered on Mars. A PhD student is studying the 3D mosaic, finding out the physical characteristics of the person--their height, whether they had certain diseases--and even how they died by studying fractures or burns on the bones. We could see on the sidescan sonar pictures that this was a big, big wreck. The Antikythera mechanism was named after the shipwreck on which it was discovered. If the ship had to carry statues, some up to three meters tall, they'd have to be packed well to prevent damage in transit. It is unclear how this intricate device ended up in the hands of Romans, but some believe the ill-fated ship was transferring a woman of importance to be married in Rome. "The two ships together are a designated national historic site. It's at 70 meters depth, it's totally, totally dark in the Baltic Sea. The technology may have been some of the best out there, but even it could be bested by Arctic conditions. Sweden had become a country, and there was an attempt to make Sweden a European superpower and Mars was part of that concept, really. It was built by the King Erik the XIV, who was son of Gustav Vasa--Vasa is our Tudor dynasty. While such a discovery would generate headlines, tiny flecks of lead may have equally fascinating stories to tell. Said Harris, "It can resolve a target the size of your thumb anywhere in that sonar record, because it's using almost like synthetic aperture radar--it's using multiple radars and its synthesising that into one coherent very, very accurate image.". The crewmen never made it to safety, and subsequent investigations of remains, found over 100 years later, found traces of starvation, lead poisoning, scurvy, pneumonia, and cannibalism among the party. It’s believed that this complex clock-like device was used by ancient Greeks to calculate the movement of the stars and planets. You just jump out of the suit and go have a cup of coffee.". Unlike the humans that operate it, it can stay underwater for 72 hours, and was packed with all sort of tech: inertial guidance systems and doppler velocity logs to plot the position and speed of the vehicle, as well as an interferometric synthetic aperture sonar (InSAS) system that can record a far wider swathe of radar (630 meters) than the towed side-scan sonar system the survey boat normally uses. With the rebreather, we increase that efficiency, but it's still we're only want to put people down when there's no other way to do the job," Foley said. Stretching 250 feet (76 meters) underground with at least 18 distinct levels, Derinkuyu was a truly massive place to live. While the Danish and German soldiers must have known the risks of a ship that was already alight, they still ventured aboard. The expedition also used a smaller machine, with a range of between 50cm and 20cm, for investigating the interior, allowing the team to record the position of small objects, like plates, where they lay within the ship. The team knew had almost certainly found one of Franklin's ships. While the researchers have no idea what they may happen upon in the wreckage, any extra information that can help explain the device’s extraordinary first century B.C. While Harris and his team continue to gain the Erebus' secrets and discover what other technologies she had onboard, the search will begin afresh for the Terror. Whistleblower Corey Goode says there is an ancient alien civilization that is flash frozen and buried under two miles of ice in Antarctica. "It looks like a chest exploded with silver coins.". "All those data at the end of the day are incorporated into the maps. So far, 36 marble statues, several bronze statues, gold jewelry and human remains have been recovered from the wreck. "I said it could well be the Mars, because it looked so different. The Canadian Space Agency also joined the project, providing satellite map data from the Radarsat I and II satellites, allowing the team to better delineate the shoreline and the low tide marks. The ancient coil-shaped artifacts were found in Russia’s Ural Mountains. They were off by about 4km. During the battle, the Mars caught fire but despite the clear danger, the Mars was still boarded in the last minutes above the waves by enemy forces. As well as images, the technology gathers the precise position of artefacts and other elements, so no need to pin out grids on the site either. You are really close to the battlefield. Investigators had only scratched the surface of the Antikythera in the last nearly two thousand years. Potentially, more of the bronze statues recovered on previous trips--hands, feet and other fragments have been found and are on display in the National Museum in Athens--could be identified through the metal heat map. There was an attempt to make Sweden a European superpower and Mars was part of that concept ... maybe the biggest ship in the world in the 1560s.". Among the techniques used to research the Mars was photogrammetry: divers took hundreds of normal digital still photos of the site from many angles, which is then sewn together by photogrammetry software to create a two-dimensional map of the site. According to Rönnby, Mars offers "the possibility to come so close to the middle of battle. When Cousteau's team had spotted the second wreck, they saw amphorae that looked probably Roman in origin--meaning the wreck could date from any time up to the fourth century BCE. Image: Theresa Nichols, Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Why was the Anitkythera so large? “We started working in 2012 with the project. The "acoustic musicians" of the Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics help archaeologists unravel the mysteries of the pre-Incan Chavín temple complex – … The telltale details of the ship emerged. Sign up today to get weekly science coverage direct to your inbox. While it's common for wrecks to be found broken and battered, much of the ship--later confirmed as the Erebus--was still intact. As the ship was loaded up with grain, which could take a couple of months, they would tour around and then get back on the ship at the end of the season.". New robotic scuba exosuit acts like a mini submarine that helps humans stay longer in the deep sea. After the boat skeleton was found, experts immediately set to work in dating the old wreckage. You couldn't have scripted it better, almost everything you looked at was just so remarkable.". 5 Guildhall East Crypt. (Credit: FRANCOIS NASCIMBENI/AFP/Getty Images) Located in… Over the years, the expedition had narrowed down its search to two areas, one in the Victoria Strait, another in Queen Maud Gulf, prompted by testimony from local Inuits who reported going aboard the vessel after its desertion by Franklin's men. Locating a wrought-iron breech-loaded cannon, however, was enough to put the identity of the ship beyond doubt. Its hull planks are some of thickest seen in antiquity, indicating the true size of the ship could be over 200 feet in length, putting it in the same ballpark as HMS Victory, the warship commanded by Admiral Lord Nelson during the Battle of Trafalgar--some 1700 years after the Antikythera sailed. How did they get covered? Even the few bones around the wreck can give up their secrets without being moved. Absolute confirmation would require human divers. With ice making the areas inaccessible for much of the year, the archaeologists had only a handful of weeks at a time to hunt for the missing ships. When we first got to Antikythera in 2012, one of the questions we had was, does the island hold a whole lot of submerged cultural resources or is this the only shipwreck out there?" We know they could follow us on AIS," Ingemar said, "so we set up a search pattern away from the wreck site and we made it look like we had found something. One day in 2011, the team had been tracking debris from a wreck site for some hours after finding some masts when something out of the ordinary loomed into view on its side scan sonar. The flames ignited the gunpowder stored on the ship causing a huge explosion that blew out the stern of the ship and took her, and the men aboard her--the Swedish sailors and invading forces alike--to the bottom of the ocean. That's not to say that the Mars won't be seen above water in future, though. 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